Law is the body of rules and regulations which govern the behavior of individuals and the social institutions in a society. These can be in the form of laws enacted by the government, state-enforced laws, or regulations issued by federal agencies. All law systems involve a process for regulating the conduct of people. The process involves a fair and democratic system of decision-making that is accessible to all citizens. It also provides a mechanism for orderly and peaceful social change.
Some legal systems are more effective than others at addressing these purposes. Typical examples of these types of legal systems include civil law and common law. Common law legal systems rely on the doctrine of precedent. This means that decisions of a higher court apply to lower courts. Additionally, these systems acknowledge that executive branch actions have a direct effect on law.
Civil law systems require less judicial decision making and are mainly concerned with rules of courts and statutes. These systems are typically shorter and more streamlined than those of common law. They may also have more specific judicial decisions. In addition, some of these systems are characterized by a lack of political involvement.
Other types of legal systems include religious law. Religious laws are explicitly based on religious precepts. There are two main types of religious law: Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia. Although these laws are not fully recognized as “law”, they can provide a basis for further law through interpretation and consensus.
Criminal law is a type of law that is enacted to maintain order in a society. Most criminal law systems are based on a legal principle called the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty. Depending on the jurisdiction, criminal laws can also be enforced by the government through the courts.
Another type of law is commercial law. Commercial law covers a variety of topics related to business and property law. Examples of common topics covered in commercial law include banking, tax, and real estate.
Other areas of law include crime and punishment, social restrictions, and war. The legal aspects of each area are discussed in various articles. Also, some countries are members of the United Nations, which discuss international aspects of law.
Some of the most common legal issues are immigration, housing, and consumer rights. Other issues include family problems, debt, and planned events. Sometimes, a legal issue is unclear and requires the help of a lawyer.
Legal issues can be caused by unexpected events such as an illness. However, most commonly, they are the result of a misunderstanding of the law, a problem at work or school, or the presence of undisputed evidence.
Legal processes are usually fairly efficient and fair. Often, laws are enacted by the government or an individual legislator. Various government websites contain information on the criminal justice system and the laws in a particular country.
For example, in the US, the Uniform Commercial Code regulates the law of commerce and business. It sets minimum capital requirements and minimum standards for banks.