The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in many ways. It mediates relations between people, and it sets standards for fairness. It can be broadly divided into civil and criminal law. Civil law jurisdictions (the majority of the world) have legislatures that codify and consolidate their laws, while common law systems rely on judge-made precedent. Some religious communities also have their own specialized religious law, such as Sharia in Islam.
The word “law” is a Latin translation of the Old English term w
In any society, there will be disagreements between individuals and between groups of people. These disagreements often lead to conflict and sometimes violence. The purpose of the law is to provide a way to settle these conflicts and prevent them from happening in the first place by creating a framework for resolving disputes through legal proceedings. The law may also set minimum standards for human rights, property ownership, safety and fairness.
Law is the subject of a broad range of scholarly inquiry, including legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. It is also a central topic of the social sciences and an important component of government, business and education. It provides a source of income for those who work in the legal profession, such as lawyers and judges.
Whether we live in a country with a civil law or common law regime, the rules that govern us are based on centuries of legal scholarship. The most influential ancient legal scholars were Romans, whose detailed codes have been adapted in various ways over the centuries to fit local circumstances and cultures. Medieval jurists studied these Roman laws and compiled them into a body of precedent called common law.
The law is a vital part of our daily lives, protecting our freedoms and keeping our society safe and orderly. It ensures that we are treated equally, regardless of age, race, religion or wealth. It helps to prevent corruption and fraud in businesses and governments. It is also the foundation for a healthy society of justice, opportunity and peace. The rule of law is the idea that all persons, institutions and entities—public and private, domestic and international—are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated and equally enforced, with independent adjudication and transparency. This concept has become an integral part of the United Nations Charter and is recognized internationally as a standard for good governance. It is a pillar of the global human rights movement. It is supported by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which states that: “No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his liberty or denied the equal protection of the law.”  The principles of the rule of law are widely accepted as essential to all major legal traditions.